An economic network (economic space) accounts for its surplus as stake appreciation, not as money accumulation. In other words, the protocol does not define surplus as a positive balance of credits like with “profit” but as a positive change in stake price. The stake valuation includes the balance of other tokens, including other participants’ stakes, commodities, and credit. An economic space can hold a surplus in the treasury or distribute it as dividends that do not need to be transformed into credit, but can remain in the same underlying token. An economic space’s stake represents access to its underlying performance, resulting outputs, and network assets.

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