Dividend is an information flow to the stakeholders through the stake as an economic connectivity “pipeline”. It is a share of output or net revenue that accrues to the stakeholder. In the economic space protocol, dividends can take various forms, such as financial returns or commodity output returns, and those returns may accrue directly to the stakeholder or to some other Agent nominated by the stakeholder, such as the commons. Dividends can also give other rights, such as rights to influence the future evolution of performance or rights to build one's own performance in connection with the performance they staked. In the ECSA discourse dividends are multi-denominational. That is an important part of generalizing “equity” into “stake” and thus into a general economic connectivity protocol. The economic space protocol does not define surplus as a positive balance of credits like with “profit”, but as a positive change in stake price. The stake valuation includes the balance of other tokens, including other participants’ stakes, commodities, and credit. That is why an economic space can hold a surplus in the treasury or distribute it as dividends that do not need to be transformed into credit (or third party issued “money”), but can remain in the same underlying token or in any other form. An economic space’s stake represents access to its underlying performance, resulting outputs, and network assets.

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