A grammar is an interoperability and interaction coordination tool that doesn’t require a central timeline (a global clock). A language organizes messages with no synchronization, but rather with validation by indexing, i.e., by embedding temporalities to one another by indexing. A grammar makes it possible to tell multiple stories at the same time: coordinating the time of speech events, not through one utterance to determine it all, but through unfolding of the many conversations as they are calibrated against each other. A grammar coordinates any potential conversation with another with no central time. How does this relate to the economy? The mutation, invention and creation that drives the economy cannot really be mapped to or by a global clock - it does not have the play of creativity of indexicality, creativity of each utterance being coordinated (co-referenced) with one another. Here is the reason why all “blockchains” (data structures defined by message ordering through a global clock) are like straight jackets from the perspective of the economy. We think the economy is the real Layer 1.

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